An Introduction To Macro Photography

Macro photography, it allows you to explore and share worlds you never knew existed, but it’s often viewed as complicated and somewhat overwhelming – filled with magnification ratios, extension tubes, focusing rails – but macro photography doesn’t need to be so daunting and it can be quite a lot of fun.

So, in this video I’m going to cover the basics so you can get started and enjoy macro photography. To start things off it is important to understand a few key pieces of terminology related to all photography – but even more important when working with macro. and the first of which and probably the most important is magnification. Now, the magnification of a lens is expressed as a ratio – and the best way I can explain magnification ratio is that it’s the ratio between a subjects actual size, its physical dimensions – and the size that said subject is projected onto your camera’s sensor. For example – let’s say you’re photographing a Pacific chorus frog. Not too big, ten by twelve millimeters. and you’re using a lens with a magnification ratio of 1:5 and you’re shooting with a full-frame sensor, So, twenty-four by thirty-six millimeters.

With that 1:5 ratio. the frogs projection on the sensor is two point six millimeters in width. Not exactly big. So, if you increase the ratio – 1:3 the frog’s projection grows to four millimeters in width. Increasing the ratio again – 1:2 the projection grows to six millimeters in width. And at 1:1 the frog’s projection becomes life-size. So, it is ten by twelve millimeters in real life and when projected onto that sensor it is ten by twelve millimeters. So, this 1:1 or life-size ratio, it’s important – because technically speaking any ratio smaller – is not macro. Moving forward. Increasing the ratio again – 2:1 the frog starts growing, or its projection starts growing. It becomes twenty millimeters when projected on that sensor. At 3:1 it becomes thirty-six millimeters in width. That covers the entire width of the full-frame sensor. At 4:1 – gets even bigger And at 5:1 the frog’s projection covers the entire frame.

Hopefully this gives you a good understanding of what magnification ratios are all about. The next thing you’ll want a firm understanding of and something that plays a very large part of macro photography – is minimum focusing distance. And although a lot is described in the wording. It is something very frequently misunderstood. Yes it is the minimum distance required for a lens to focus properly. but it’s not referring to the distance between a subject and the end of a lens.

But rather the distance between a subject and your camera’s focal plane – and your camera’s focal plane is marked by a little circle with an intersecting vertical line and this indicates the position directly in front of your camera’s sensor. Now, we have a 70-200mm lens and it’s minimum focusing distance is 150 centimeters or roughly 59 inches – regardless of the focal length. So if we line this up with the camera’s focal plane. 59 inches stretches out of frame – and ends up way over here. And not exactly close and not exactly a powerful option for macro photos. So, instead using a macro lens – a 100 mm macro lens. With a minimum focusing distance of 30 centimeters or 11.8 inches, conveniently the length of a ruler. Lining it up once more. Clearly, you can get your lens a lot closer to a subject and when combined with a high magnification ratio it clearly illustrates how powerful of a tool – a macro lens can be.

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The final important piece of terminology is depth of field. And hopefully depth of field is something you’re already somewhat familiar with, but because it’s something I talk about quite a bit throughout this video – it’s worth reviewing quickly. Depth of field is the distance between the nearest and the furthest points of an image where objects are acceptably in focus – or sharp. So, imagine depth of field as a three-dimensional box. Everything inside the box is in focus and the size of the box is determined by your lens’s aperture – plus one or two other variables that I’ll touch on in a minute. So, with a small aperture that’s a high f-stop – you have a large depth of field.

The box is quite large and a lot of your images in focus, but this requires a lot of light. So, with a large aperture, that’s a small f-stop you have a very shallow depth of field. There’s not a lot of your image infocus and this allows in a lot more light. Without question the biggest challenge you’ll be facing when capturing macro photos – is not having a large enough depth of field. this is especially true when using large magnification ratios, when the depth of field essentially becomes a sliver. There are two factors contributing to this depth of field dilemma. First: long focal lengths inherently have a small or a shallow depth of field and wide focal lengths have a large depth of field. Second: depth of field becomes larger when focusing on a subject at a considerable distance from your focal plane – and then depth of field becomes smaller when focusing at or near the lens’s minimum focusing distance. To clearly illustrate how depth of field is impacted by focal length and focusing distance, I have two lenses here.

A 35 mm and a 100 mm. Both have the same minimum focusing distance of 30 centimeters. Using an aperture of f/2.8 the 35 mm lens at its minimum focusing distance has a depth of field of 11 millimeters. Whereas, the 100 mm lens at the same minimum focusing distance and with the same aperture of f/2.8 has a depth of field of one millimeter. Maintaining the f/2.8 aperture, but doubling the focusing distance to 60 centimeters. The 35 mm lens now has a depth of field of 47 millimeters, but the 100 mm lens still only has a depth of field of 5.1 millimeters. The difference in depth of field between these two lenses hopefully shows you just how challenging it can be to create macro images with the majority of a subject in focus.. You may now also be questioning if long focal lengths produce a small depth of fields – why don’t macro lenses use wide focal lengths? Well, a macro lens with a long focal length , moves the minimum focusing distance further from the end of the lens while maintaining that 1:1 magnification ratio – and this creates a large working distance and that can be rather beneficial.

If you’re trying to photograph an insect that is easily startled – you don’t have to be as close – there’s less of a chance that that insect will fly away – or crawl away. If you’re photographing something that is potentially harmful to yourself – you don’t have to be as close and put yourself at risk. Not being as close to a subject also reduces the chances that you or your camera shadow’s will obscure any important and valuable ambient light. Because depth of field is so small when focusing on subjects close to the focal plane – macro photography is heavily reliant on small apertures to produce a large depth of field, and that requires a whole lot of light. There are two basic means of delivering this necessary light, and they essentially divide macro photography into two distinct shooting styles.

What I would consider the first basic shooting style of macro photography is handheld shooting – and this is the most flexible option. You can recompose your composition as quickly as you can move your camera in your hands. It’s ideal for following flight in insects around your backyard or through the undergrowth of a forest. However, without the stability of a tripod you need to be using faster shutter speeds, which require even more light.

Meaning you’re going to be adding light and using higher ISO’s. and one challenge of adding on-camera light is – macro lenses end up very close to the subject and often the on-camera light is eclipsed by the end of the lens and no light actually hits your subject. And that isn’t to say an on-camera light can’t be made to reach right in front of your lens. There are quite a few do it yourself options out there to create a macro light snoot and although many of them look rather janky the results are quite clear. Ideally though you’d be using a proper macro ring light or dedicated lens mounted macro lights and those work perfectly for running around and keeping both of your hands on your camera.

Yours definitely doesn’t need the breakfast cereal and cracker box construction. This is simply to show you the difference moving light in front of the lens can make. So, this first photo is with the super posh homemade light modifier slash snoot – and the second photo is with just the on-camera light. If you decide to do some handheld shooting focusing becomes a bit tricky to say the least. Because depth of fields are so small at close focusing distances – autofocus is not usually a practical option and even manual focus requires a bit of practice. I find it best to set your lens at a predetermined focusing distance and then slowly move yourself back and forth until the subject appears in focus. So, in this example I’ve got the lens set to its minimum focusing distance – so, I get that one-to-one magnification ratio and then looking a little tipsy as I do so I will rock back and forth until this spider is exactly in focus.

And those extra frames are just to guarantee that at least one of those shots has the focus exactly where I want it. If you’re not photographing a moving subject and you don’t need to quickly or frequently change the composition – put your camera on a tripod. This is what I would consider the second basic shooting style of macro photography. And the most significant benefit of using a tripod for macro work, like all photography – it enables you to use him considerably slow shutter speeds while relying on natural light.

In turn this gives you a chance to use a small aperture giving you that big depth of field you’re after. Another advantage of the tripod – you can be a bit more creative with the positioning of external light should you choose to add any. And best of all, you no longer look like a drunken sailor when it comes time to focus. Instead enable live view – relying on auto or manual focus, but to double check magnify the image as many times as possible and use manual focus to make minut changes until the focus is exactly where you want it. When you’re happy with the focus – fire off your frames.

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Another great benefit of using a tripod, it allows you to use focusing rails and focusing rails allow you to maintain a magnification ratio but move the camera further or closer to your subject. Whether by using a tripod and long exposure or by placing a flash mere centimeters from your subject. With seemingly infinite light, you may be inclined to use your lenses smallest aperture to create the biggest depth of field possible. And this line of thinking isn’t incorrect. However, you will quickly encounter the negative impact of diffraction. Diffraction occurs when light passes through a small opening and then bends around the exiting corners – taking it away from its original path just slightly. To illustrate this more clearly pretend that the nozzle of this spray bottle is a lens aperture. The water inside is light and this piece of paper is a sensor.

Now, if I have the aperture / nozzle wide open, let’s call this f/1.4 the light passes through the aperture making contact with the sensor in a clean defined point. However, stop down the nozzle / aperture, let’s call this f/22.0 and the light now passes through the aperture making contact with the sensor in a messy non-uniformed sense – and this greatly reduces the sharpness of an image. Now, diffraction takes hold at differing apertures with different lenses. Some lenses may see noticeable diffraction at f/16.0 while others may retain sharpness all the way to f/22.0 For example I have my Canon 100 mm lens here and you can see that photos remain sharp from f/2.8 all the way to f/16.0 at which point diffraction begins to appear – and beyond f/22.0 I wouldn’t consider those photos usable.

When you’re adding lights to a macro composition you should make every effort to diffuse your light. It’s really surprising how many insects have a glossy carapace or reflective eyes and how many plants have a waxy semi-reflective leaf or petal to them. Personally I use a proper softbox. It does the job just great, but there are plenty of do it yourself options out there – that work just as well. I’ve tried tracing paper – one of my personal favorites is the transparent plastic that milk jugs are made out of – that works quite well. Now, I have a water droplet on this salal leaf here – and a water droplet is a pretty extreme example of something reflective, but it’s going to demonstrate the difference between a bare light and a diffused light – perfectly. So, the first photo I’m taking with a bare light. Right away I can see there are tiny little white rectangles within the water droplet and that is the reflection of the bear flash head. So, moving to the diffused light.

Right away I can see that those white rectangles in the water droplet are gone and the light is a lot more pleasing overall. One thing to remember when diffusing your light is to increase the tower output just a little bit to compensate for the light lost by the diffusion. At this point it’s worth emphasizing that anyone with a sound technical understanding can produce a macro photo that’s in focus, but it takes creativity, experimentation and ultimately failure to create macro photos that are truly engaging. There is little point in me listing off compositional theories, but suffice to say that macro photography it doesn’t differ compositionally than any other photographic genre. If you’re just starting to explore the world of macro, I would suggest you pay attention to two things: perspective and backgrounds. Consider how perspective influences how scale is perceived. If you photograph a subject from above it will look small but if you get down to its level – it will look and feel larger-than-life.

Granted many macro subjects are close to the ground and getting down to their level can be a bit tricky. But if you pull it off successfully, the awkward yoga positions are worth the while. Backgrounds are often completely forgotten about – and often you’re putting so much light on a subject that the background is underexposed and completely black. Some people don’t mind the look of the black background, but try adding a bit of light and texture to the background – just to see if it improves your composition. When you’re composing a macro photo try to remember that your depth of field is linear. So, if your subject happens to be flat or at all straight – try to keep your focal plane parallel to the subjects length. In this example I have a fern frond here and you can currently see how the edges of the frond are not in focus – but if I move the camera’s focal plane to become parallel with the frond: the depth of field now encompasses the entire fern frond from edge to edge and it’s all in focus.

It’s not the very last thing, but I’ve left the subject of gear towards the end of this video because, macro photography only requires two things: a camera, and most importantly a macro lens. a flash and a tripod are helpful, but by no means are they a necessity. If you’re just starting out your first macro lens – it shouldn’t be anything overly extravagant. Most manufacturers offer 50 mm macro lenses that can produce a one-to-one magnification ratio – and a 50 mm focal length will give you a slightly larger depth of field than a macro lens with a longer focal length and that’s helpful when you’re learning. An alternative you may be considering right now is a combination lens – a telephoto zoom lens that claims to have macro capabilities. Don’t fall for the marketing. Remember if it doesn’t have a one-to-one magnification ratio – it’s not a macro lens.

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Extension tubes may seem like an inexpensive alternative for jumping into the world of macro. but the light they take away – is usually more frustration than benefit. In regards to cameras there is no one camera type that is better suited for macro photography. However sensor size does impact how macro photos are captured. With a full-frame sensor you can push your ISO is relatively high while using a small aperture, but its depth of field is comparatively small.

Whereas, an APS-C sensor has a slightly larger depth of field and it’s crop effectively increases magnification ratios of a macro lens. And a micro 4/3 sensor takes things even further. It has a fair-sized depth of field right out of the gates and once again is crop factor increases magnification ratios – and then there’s diffraction. Just as diffraction becomes apparent at differing apertures with different lenses – diffraction becomes visible with different sensor sizes. With that micro 4/3 sensor diffraction may become noticeable at f/8 or f/11 Whereas, an APS-C sensor may retain detail to around f/16 and with a full-frame sensor diffraction doesn’t usually become noticeable until f/22. Finally, there’s resolution. If you plan on pursuing macro photography intently you should look for a high resolution sensor, because in the world of macro detail is king. The last thing to talk about is something I feel needs to be talked about more frequently and more openly – and that is the matter of ethics.

Just because a macro subject is small enough to pick up and position exactly as desired – Doesn’t mean you should do so. Would you capture a fox to bring home just a photograph in a studio setting? Would you put a cheetah in a refrigerator so that it moves more slowly? Would you glue a bear’s paw to a tree so that it stayed put? Would you spray a cougar with water to create interesting reflections? These ideas that seem ridiculous when thinking about large animals. But many macro photographers go to extreme lengths just to get that perfect photo – and they often harm their small subjects. And it shouldn’t stop with the subjects either, as a macro photographer you should be respecting your subjects environment – their habitat. Would you cut down trees that were a distracting foreground element when photographing a moose? Then why do so many macro photographers bring scissors to cut down grass and foliage that may be obscuring that perfect butterfly photo. As a macro photographer I implore you to show these small subjects the same respect you would give to any other megafauna.

With that I’ll wrap things up. If you’ve liked this video – click like. If you have a comment, a suggestion – you just want to say hi – put it down below. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time..

Portrait Artist Price List

Paint My Photos has been in custom portait business since 2002 and we are artists based company, which means you buy direct from artists. Order from us can save you at least 50% of the cost. Trust me, you don’t deserve to pay that much money. Moreover, you don’t need to worry about the quality, paintings are done by professional portrait artists, our artist team is a secret source behind many top art galleries. They commission art from us and sell thousands dollars.

A lot of people realize the importance of a fully custom art work and portrait. They understand how precious it is to present some other person or you a gift which will last not only a lifetime, but a lifetime and beyond. Whatever the reason for considering commissioning a custom portrait, you have probably considered how much it costs financially.

Charge for a painting relies on the dimensions and number of persons to be painted. A huge canvas will cost more than a small canvas. A four person family portrait will cost higher than a two person portrait.

This inquiry is asked frequently across the internet as it’s a very important one.

How much will a customized family portrait cost?

Cost of a painting or a portrait mostly relies on the popularity of the artist as well as quality of his work. Therefore, providing an exact quote is difficult. Even so, you can decide on online services like, which takes your digital photographs and transforms it into a hand-painted portrait according to your specifications. It is a reasonable price service, particularly if you look when compared with traditional artists. Additionally, it is hassle-free, high-quality and the portrait is delivered right at your doorsteps.

Having Your Portrait Painted Is Popular Again, and It’s Simply Cost You $150

Once considered a relic belonging to the photography era, the art of portrait painting is creating a comeback think of it as a selfie that takes weeks to complete.

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star wars wall canvas

If you happen to be after a selection of Star Wars ever since its first part, then perhaps you’re an enthusiastic fan of a few figures in the story. You will want to then use a canvas paintings which has your stars therefore you’d always have their unique inspirations to locate to? This kind of style is precisely manufactured for you! It could generate a different kind of feeling in the space considering that it draws the viewer’s focus. You could also have it associated by various ornaments with the exact same subject. It’s super easy to setup. The associated fee is reasonable. However it features an awesome value to your office or house. would be the proper website to shop for star wars art. Our star wars works of art also come in various size ranges, colour combinations, and styles. Purchasers can readily select the a lot of well-designed design for their home, family room, living area, cooking area, bath room, resort, and workplace too. You could hang these star wars paintings on your wall behind the bed or behind the bedroom inside your bedroom. You will be thankful to find out that these star war canvas series are very simple to hang with their modern style finish.

The web based shops at present contain a wide array of multiple piece paintings, nevertheless nothing compares to the magnificent appeal of star wars canvas art work in the eyes of Star wars admirers. Certainly, it is just a must-have décor thing for followers. They aren’t limited by 1 or 2 patterns; you will find lot many, every at least one produces a fantastic impact in the fans’ eyes.

The star war line is probably the greatest films on this whole world; it got lots of hearts around the globe. The fighting spaceships, inter-family feuds, sci-fi explosions, and quirky alien figures; there’s so many wonderful things to learn about the star war collection. Likely, the awesomeness of this idea may not be conveyed in words and phrases; this is why we come up with hand-painted star wars canvas art pieces for enthusiasts.

Star Wars is known as a cultural event that’s spanned many years and that has an incredible number of fans internationally. The epic stories and heroes are part of a sci-fi mythos which has accomplished famous status. If perhaps you happen to be a fan, or possibly you are looking for a gift for someone particular, then is the best place to look. Their set of canvas paintings features everybody’s superheroes, ships, plus much more, so if you expect Darth Vader hanging upon your living room area wall, or maybe you prefer to put Yoda for the home office, you’ll find anything that you would like.

The Star Wars picture of your final choice is encased in a strong frame along with supplies employed for the full product have good quality. It includes a protecting layer against sun or water damage and mold. Furthermore, you do not need an excessive amount of effort to help keep it in shape. The item is demonstrated to go on for an extended period of time underneath normal conditions. You can buy several different Star Wars pics all of which are shown in this website with certain information. You can easily search through each and every group to locate other stuff that can likely fit your pursuits.

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The way toPaint a Beautiful Design on a Black Canvas Baggage

A eye-catching baggage can improve the time you’ll spend on the airport terminal also it can aid the prevention of mix-ups during security not to mention check-in. This may also make it easier to identify your bag on the carousel rapidly, it mat be frustrating robbery. To keep your bags well protected, here I will discuss five ways you can personalize your baggage so it will be stay ahead of everyone else:

The 1st step along the way is to try to determine your design. Look for a design that features a solid outside line such as a cartoon character or perhaps a list of letters. My best design was a pair of three kittens and cats somewhere with a mouse on the back. Once you’ve discovered your design, draw or trace the outer lines of the design upon the black colored canvas with a graphite or disappearing yellow/white sewing pencil.

Paint into the lines with gesso or maybe a white fabric base paint. Let this layer of paint to dry entirely ahead of carrying on. Both gesso and fabric base paint take longer to dry in comparison with acrylic paint due to their thickness. The gesso or fabric base paint solidifies and helps to create a surface area that can accept a layer of coloured paint by using a single layer. You’ll have to paint up to five layers of light shaded paint on black canvas to have the lightness of the paint to appear.

Soon after the gesso or white fabric base paint is dry, draw the inside lines of your design. Shade each one area in with the suitable shaded acrylic or simply fabric paint. Allow the paint to dry completely before carrying on.

Add more almost any details you love at this stage including covering, minor forms for example dots, circles, roses etc .. Shake glitters over the wet paint to include a further dimension if you want. In the end little designs plus glitter are applied, outline each area by way of black paint. Select a liner brush to do the detailing. A liner brush holds the paint longer and produces a extended line of paint over a smaller round brush.

Heat set the layout after the closing drying. Put a brown piece of packaging paper covering the design area. Turn up your iron and heat on the cotton setting. Position the hot iron in the upper left hand corner of the packaging paper and keep in position for 15 seconds. Move the iron to the right one iron’s width and repeat. Go on moving the iron and heat the art work until the whole location has been heat set. Take off the brown packing paper and you are all set.

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Francoise Nielly – Shop for Unique Art Online

Its abstract with funky colours. That’s my first impressions on this piece of work. It demonstrates dark areas exactly where more dark colors are, and lightweight in which less heavy shades are. In my opinion its too colorful, however. I prefer just a few colours. Alternatively, just dark colours.

In her own individual way, Francoise Nielly paints a persons encounter in every one of his works of art. And she paints it over and over yet again, with slashes of color all over their experience. Instances of daily life that develop from her artwork are given birth to from the clinch using the fabric. Colour is released similar to a projectile.

Because you can see the brush strokes, and the rough colour blocks, the piece of work looks rough textured. Its various to a lot of performers who clean out their clean cerebral vascular accidents, and who mix their hues. I enjoy the abstract impact it provides.

She has investigated the many elements of “impression” all her daily life, by way of piece of art, virtual, photography, illustrations and roughs, laptop or computer created computer animated visuals. It can be obvious seeing that artwork is her route and her enthusiasm.

Francoise Nielly life within a arena of graphics.

She becomes her feeling of construction and space from her dad, who has been an designer. Being raised from the Southern of France exactly where she existed involving Saint and Cannes-Tropez, is rarely far away from the sunshine, colour feeling as well as the surroundings that permeates the To the south of France. This can be in conjunction with her research along with her research on the Beaux artistry and Elaborate Disciplines, and her spontaneity and also party.

Francoise Nielly’s artwork is expressive, displaying a brute push, a remarkable essential vitality. knife and Oil blend develop her graphics from your fabric which is , simultaneously, biting and sensual, carnal and incisive. Regardless of whether she paints the body or portraits, the performer has a danger : her piece of art is erotic, her hues totally free,surprising and exuberant, even intense, the minimize of her blade incisive, her coloration pallet amazing.

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Francoise Nielly analysis

Nielly shows you a protective analysis toward feel and has become an instinctive and wild goal of expressions. If you ever close your eyes, you would not think about a face, which has colors, but if you think about this carefully, everything gains a form by our dreams. The most plagued soul will surely have colors, that happen to be concealed but always alive. Some people assume that in a portrait, there is always a a good relationship that runs away, but in my opinion, every indicating is produced in their face. Eyes locate sins and keenness, a grin starts up fulfillment or perhaps a decisive lie, and brilliant designs show judgments without very much movement.

In her own way, Francoise Nielly paints an individual’s face in each of his drawings. And she paints it time after time, with slashes of paint throughout their face. Memories of life that appear from her paintings are made from a clinch with the canvas. Colors is revealed as a projectile.

Does one love Francoise francoise nielly painting style Nielly’s paintings? Do you want to get a portrait painting produced by painter? I have no idea if Francoise take on commission job? However, when she do, i bet the price is definitely super expensive since most of her artworks are available $10,000 to $30,000. That being said, basically, it is nearly difficult to let Francoise Nielly draw your portrait, although, guess what, our experienced artists can! We are able to create your face the same as Francoise Nielly do!

Francoise Nielly is an artist seen as a advanced and complex ideas expressing delightful and essential energy and strength.

Works of art by creator Franoise Nielly have a very real strength that project in each and every composition. Having improved palette knife portrait techniques, the painter utilizes deep strokes of oil on canvas to blend a clear abstraction in to these figurative portraits. The art pieces, which might be based out of quick black and white images, feature excessive light, shadow, depth, and energetic neon colours. In keeping with her resource on Behance, Nielly carries a risk: her portrait is sexual, her styles free, exuberant, unusual, sometimes mind-blowing, the cut of her knife incisive, her colouring pallete remarkable.

In Francoise Nielly’s Art, she really doesn’t use any modern tools and utilizes only oil combined with palette knife. The colors are scattered roughly on the canvas and turn into a highly amazing work. Her portraits encapsulate strength of colors like a wonderful means of seeing life. The perception and form are simply starting points.

Francoise draws lines to discover elegance, passion, while focusing of memories. Every single portrait represents a sense of pleasure and disappointment. When we learn these types of sensuous, significant and confusing drawing, we know that notice can push seriously in any look, in any gesture, in a position which outlines ones methods of being. The colors are what makes Nielly’s art so valid and natural which is hard not to fall in love with her subjects. Quite a few might be the inspirations, which often show up in these kinds of feeling, and quite a few can be the classifications which may be expressed. ?Have you told yourselves how important it should be to have shades? You may have asked yourself how important it truly is to manage this type of shades?

The Beauty Of Oil Paints

Forget fine details and complex designs and colours. Begin easy with a mug or an egg, essentially any object with simple lines and curves. Once you get the dangle of it, progress to more difficult concepts with much more colours or more texture.

Acrylic paint is applied with brushes or a palette knife paintings. Buy brushes that are particularly meant for acrylic paints, including a great combine of natural and synthetic bristled brushes. Brush treatment is essential. You can wipe your brushes and fingers on a clean fabric during use, but be sure to clean them completely with chilly drinking water when finished. You will also require a palette on which to combine your paints. There are wooden and plastic palettes, but if you don’t really feel like cleaning up every time, paper palettes are excellent, as you just rip off the top sheet when you’re via with your paints.

The most popular sizes for paint boxes are 12 x 16 and sixteen x twenty inches. The box lid should be grooved to maintain canvas panels of the same size. A box in both of these sizes will serve both for the studio and outside. Paint containers are accessible in wood and metal. Metal ones are more expensive but will last a lifetime, and wood ones already painted or stained price much more than unpainted types.

Retarder is not essential when applying your general wash before you begin painting. This would only include to the size of time it will consider to dry out. When you have portray in locations that you really feel are finished allow the drying retarder to totally dry before moving on to portray nearby. Over-dillution can seep out onto the region you just finished. Big locations that require a wash are very best still left without retarder. Washes flip out much better with a clear gesso rather.

Otherwise, in contrast, it can be a palette knife art, a home knife, or then once more a rag, or a little sponge. We have numerous options open to us. Certainly, it depends on the artist, their style of expressionism in addition to what is in stage of reality used to create it. You also should consider into thought the current disposition of the artist at work.

Once you have all your provides ready with you, you can embark on your project by pouring a small amount of the initial color on leading of the tile you will be utilizing for blending colours. Maintain in mind, a small mound of coloured powder is sufficient to a fantastic extent. Making use of a leonid afremov, you pour 1 fall of oil and one drop of turpentine onto your little pile of colour.

Actually you want to think about varied styles of art furthermore a very decent way of performing this is to perceive from other people at exhibitions in neighborhood libraries, art galleries etc. Neighboring artists show their fashion of work, in their chosen style like portraits for instance or landscape paintings.

The important to effective rice salad is to be inventive. Add finely chopped veggies or fruit and meat, poultry or fish and chill the rice salad till you are prepared to serve it.

ink painting, limited palette

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Graham’s constructions

Most of those who have commented on Graham’s constructions, on his deployment of various architectural elements (and I would consider video among them) invariably make the spectator the focus of their analysis. The very substance of the work – that’s how Donald Kuspit puts it – is the viewing subject, the subject who, like Graham in his little demonstration, in giving him or herself an experience, inscribes him or herself in the work. (5) Critical preoccupation, then, has, for the most part, always lay with the problematic of the subject in its fiction, with – as Graham so aptly demonstrates – the issue of an abyssal separation which, in marking the subject, in dividing it between more than one figure, recalls for it the mortal insufficiency to which its image has condemned it.

Birgit Pelzer, in “Vision in Process” (what might still be one of the finest articles on Graham’s work to date), remarks: “Beyond their declarative immateriality, [the constructions’] presence is entirely dissolved by the spectator’s movements.” “These works are brought into existence by a spectator who is simultaneously absorbed in and distanced from his own ambiguous situation.” (6) Although I support such assessments concerning the question of the subject or the figure, or, as Pelzer points out, the subordination of the architectural elements in the course of one’s movement, one’s “step,” as I would like to put it, where you/it – the subject, but also the work – see yourself/itself “coming-to-pass,” it is precisely these very elements that I wish to emphasize and from an entirely different angle.

I said “coming-to-pass.” I said that rather than saying: “It – the work, or for that matter, the subject – is brought or brings itself to completion.” Like the subject, I do not think that these works can ever be brought, can ever bring themselves to completion.

Doughnuts @Grace

With or without its audience these works will never complete themselves. Thus, even in the absence of the spectator, these works continue in their coming-to-pass; they labour – incessantly – to complete themselves even in your absence.

A cursory glance at any of the graphic or photographic evidence of Graham’s installations should be enough to convince anyone of the importance of the spectator in making these events happen. Indeed, in some instances, the work appears to be on the verge of being overrun by participants of one kind or another. However, tonight, at the risk of overlooking the issue of audience, I have decided, for the purpose of my demonstration, to think of these structures as enclosures which, in opening themselves for inspection, at once, close themselves down. Thus, for the moment, I want to think of them as being sealed – each one like a crypt in a cemetery or a temple, a temple of art perhaps – which calls out to be violated. (7) However, a word of caution: if it is at all possible to enter into a relation with the crypt, a condition which demands an application of violence, a redoubling of the violence that marks the incorporation of the crypt in the first place, it will not be revealed, will not be given to be seen or comprehended in what is still referred to as a presentation. No demonstration, no presentation will have sufficed, here, to show us this place: the “placeless place” of what, at bottom, remains irreplaceable.

What is the “new” in these neologisms?

Within the vast array of phraseology being coined to describe use of the Internet are the names that designate its promise of new kinds of sexual adventure, among them virtual sex, net porn, teledildonics. What is the “new” in these neologisms?

Neonudism is a hypermedia project conceived as a response to this query. It is designed to place viewers, or users in electronic parlance, into a conceptual and aesthetic environment in which they experience a “live” on-line sex scene. The philosophy of Neonudism is premised on eliciting in the user a desire to risk self-exposure, and at the same time it is much concerned with stripping away technological novelty to expose conventions. Neonudism is directed toward cutting through layers of technological mediation in parallel with revealing personal desires – but ironically, through the use of technology.

In Le Grand Verre, Marcel Duchamp showed us La Mariee Mise a Nu par ses celibataires, meme, the ultimate feminine erotic essence without clothes, without a “tool.” She is the key to the desire apparatus of the chocolate-grinding masculine masturbation machine, the fuel for its autoerotic engine. Today people are intensely interested in how the Net might reconfigure or enhance the desiring apparatus, as we see in “teledildonics.” There are two aspects of this that are particularly interesting. One is the constant flow of sex images on the Net ranging from familiar nudie porn pictures to the most specialized fetishes, indicating the unquenchable onanistic desire of the bachelor machine. The other is the adoption of disguises by Net-cruisers, intended to enhance their sense of freedom as they connect with each other in cyberspace. Neonudism purposes that ultimately these features of desire on the Net are apparati that conceal rather than reveal, that clothe rather than denude. (1)

To participate in Neonudism, the user first engages with a constructed audio and visual environment whose underlying premise is “artistic teledelegation.” This refers to a conceptual, visual and auditory strategy that links a viewer of the work to a denuding or self-revealing experience, which here involves a connection to CUSeeMe live two-way erotic video. (2) Teledelegation is the key to penetrating the cloaking layers that block self-disclosure on the Net. It is a representational strategy based on several layers of surrogacy. The top layer of imagery is the point of identification or entry for the viewer — a digital video “self-portrait of the artist,” or at least, a portrait of a self-involved artistic temperament. This portrait is merged into the next layer of teledelegation, an “eye candy” program of self-generating imagery which portrays the inner workings of the machine as having a quasi-organic and visually pleasurable life of its own. (3) The composite of these two elements responds visually and audibly to the moment of self-disclosure, that is, the feeding in of a CUSeeMe image. This recognition transforms the “amateur porn” participants who are present via CUSeeMe into “art nudes,” thus pushing the viewer through the boundary of distinction between experience and art, and between nudity and sexuality.

The first problem in materializing these ideas in a digital image environment is how to portray concealment and, consequently, denuding. Although my work as an artist has always been subjective, personal presence tends to be couched in metaphor and abstraction. There is a longstanding biological metaphor in my visual art practice that links representation itself to the production of subjectivity, to self-reproduction one could say. This metaphor is also a way to have a vicarious and playful participation in species reproduction, which I have not otherwise engaged in. For Neonudism, I wanted to develop an image on screen of a self-absorbed female character who would be my proxy in self-production. She should both hide and reveal my presence as she speaks for me, leading viewers into a CUSeeMe episode with the same mix of curiosity and awkwardness that I feel myself. She is the viewer’s delegate.

In her exploration of a new sex technology, this proxy is engaged in a process of self-knowledge through sex, a search for meaning about sexuality. In fact she should exhibit an excessive attempt to make sense of sexual experience, as an ironic strategy that points to the limits of a Net sex environment. To represent such an excess in thinking and place it into the mouth of my delegate, I couch my own experience in the discursive framework of three well-known philosophers. This is intended to serve a double purpose. These are thinkers whose ideas I have long admired and identified with, and so I want to use Neonudism as a vehicle for their thoughts as they have influenced my thoughts.

But at the same time, the strategy is to be tongue-in-cheek, as if the quotes from their texts are merely footnotes to my own tales of sexual adventure. Through the absorption of ideas from Nietzsche, Bataille and Irigaray as well as quotes from their writings, I want to address what I see as a paradox of Net space, or cyberspace. Immersion in cyberspace entails both a loss of self and an enhancement of self, akin to an intense sex experience. These three writers have each taken up the theme of a complicated interplay between ego fortification and loss, Irigaray and Bataille explicitly in relation to sexuality.

This theoretical level of eroticization is to work in parallel with a loss and gain of identity in the immersive experience of CUSeeMe, which in certain ways results in seeing oneself anew, in a sexualized self-knowledge. The cyber-helmsman that generates the immersive feedback loop is sexual curiosity, directing the experience and keeping it tied to body experience. The theorists’ presence is mitigated by other voices speaking over and around the surrogate’s voice, which is already composed of different personae vying for authenticity. In this layering of identity, the assumption of a voice of intellectual authority by the speaker serves as a layer of concealment covering over the rawness of sexual curiosity. When the surrogate tells stories that ring of firsthand and lived experience, they are therefore enhanced and intensified for the viewer.

Another level of irony and of humour comes forward in imagining participants in a CUSeeMe session discussing dense theory as part of the chat window experience. (4) Although this is not entirely out of the bounds of possibility it certainly is not part of the usual format. The voice of my own script, as it unfolds toward contact with a video feed, overtly admits curosity and anticipation, countering the oblique highbrow talk that opens the session and speaking more directly to potential video participants. And that, after all, is the point. In an environment of live exchange and exposure, two-way contact is what counters paranoid space. In the CUSeeMe clubs, there is a generous acknowledgment and even acceptance of lurkers, those who want to remain invisible to watch and listen. But the idea is to enter, and to engage.

X, Y, Z, and U art show

As live images of the “friends” who participate come in, you watch your own involvement, see yourself on screen as seen by the others present. The effect is not the much discussed disembodiment or virtuality of cyberspace, but a sense of recourse to familiar conventions and thus of a kind of alienation. The conventions are hard to see precisely because of their familiarity and the cloaking effect of a new and, in this case, cumbersome medium. My own response feels both obsessive and distant, alienated desire cut off from its object by the very slow rate of information transmission, or by the reluctance that follows from a surfeit of analytical overlay. It’s hard to say which, but then, I’m a newbie.

Defamiliarization is a key issue. This is a term from the Russian formalist critic Victor Shklovskii, and it means presenting familiar things in such a way that they are experienced again as if for the first time. We are thinking of Duchamp’s subtle insertion of explicitness in his reworking of art nudes, especially his Lovers series of etchings which culminate in an interpretation of Courbet’s Femme a bas blanc (his painting of a woman peeling off her stockings, displaying her sex). Duchamp alerted the viewer to Courbet’s coy voyeuristic intentions by adding a watching bird to the scene. We propose that the unfamiliarity of the Net as an artistic medium can also defamiliarize conventions that appear under its protection.

The Neonude surrogate’s presence on screen also invokes a biological metaphor, as a way to merge the human and machine aspects of the environment. She should be seen as a kind of engulfing female monster who lives in the recesses of electronic space, a swallowing machine. She swallows the video images as they feed in, melts and merges, bursts in a spew of pixels. Biology here implies involvement with human drives, it is biology in the sense that Freud perceived an as yet unexplained bridge between the needs and wants of the body, and those of the psyche. My way of addressing this area is to inhabit an ultra feminine persona who allows me to explore the familiar terrain of my femininity in an unfamiliar way and to portray it as simultaneously very evident and completely elusive. For instance, it permits me to play the role of the submissive, to be disguised by submission so as to penetrate a new surround.

In developing the neonudist delegate, working from my own experience, I wanted to expose more than I usually do about myself while avoiding the simply confessional. Considering aspects of myself that I conceal behind various kinds of masks is like considering experiences forgotten, through time or through more elaborate processes of submerging in the psyche. In assuming the task as an artist to access these recesses of the psyche, there should be no deterrents to following the compulsions of desire and will wherever they lead. I think of French artist Sophie Calle as a preeminent practitioner of such self-exposure. Reading about her video work Double Bind, I experience a shock of recognition. (5) I don’t want Neonudism to be a painful experience for myself or anyone else, frankly admitting desperation and brutalization as Calle does. But her drive to lay bare her psychosexual vulnerability by means of a scenario that she herself has staged is like my own impetus to understand the switching mechanisms between abjection and control, two extreme psychic conditions operating within the same subjectivity, and intimately tied to personal sexual history.

Calle’s work investigates conceptions of the subject that are key to feminist theories and have often been contentious within them. My own long-standing interest in this area has been especially influenced by the French feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher Luce Irigaray, resulting in a scenarization for Neonudism that is an attempt to articulate the place where there is no text — the negative, absence, a place without representation, the lack-of-having (the phallus, and thus subjectivity). At the core of my strategy is the idea of representational surrogacy, or, of representation as surrogacy. Psychoanalytic theory, in the form that it infused the study of representation in the 1980s and shaped the feminist point of view, proposes a subjectivity that is both overdetermined from its earliest stages and yet always in process. This paradox allows the surrogate to be the self that is never solved, and even more importantly, to be a signifier not just for self (presence), but also for not-self (absence). Such a notion is crucial to any project that involves the emergence of dimensions of the self not yet experienced.

This approach to the study of subjectivity enriched enormously the conceptualization of intersubjectivity, the everyday and intimate exchanges that continuously shape the human psyche. At the same time that it examines subjectivity, Neonudism is about the banality that the Net can inflict on intersubjectivity, or let’s say, its imposition of mediated affect compared to the real-life drama that Calle’s work is engaged with and pulls the viewer into. Here I’m referring to the exaggerated promise of electronic erotic connection in a medium such as CUSeeMe, with no intention to deny the new forms of communication that the Net permits. (6) Voyeurism remains voyeurism, in whatever medium. Cyberspace is portrayed as a space of perceptual revolution, especially when it is linked to technological hype such as the Virtual Reality fad. Neonudism seeks to strip bare that apparatus.

Neonudism is an attitude toward technology that is premised on “low tech.” In technoculture we use advanced tools to try to regain a state of nature. VR would be the most visible example: its goal is to make of itself a transparent medium so as to try and simulate consciousness itself. As a potential art form, VR could be seen as the current technolimit of the attempt to reveal the inner self in a linkup between psyches. But VR is more of an imagined than an actual tech; and unless it addresses the massive differences between actual and imagined virtuality, it conceals more than it reveals. We like the idea of wanting to reveal, wanting to access the innermost reaches of the psyche and especially its apparatus of desire. The premise of neonudism is to divest ourselves of the clothing of elaborate tools with a view toward disclosing ourselves as fully as possible. The contradiction is that we require technology to do this, we require teledelegation to link ourselves to the revealing potential of Net sexuality. Our solution is simple technology that exposes itself as a prosthesis of the imagination: the desiring machine itself stripped bare.

The surrogate is sexually charged through the image of her face alone, incessantly verbalizing, suggesting an absorption of the viewer through a hypnotic drone of text into the dematerialized space of the machine. As she speaks an intense, dense and self-involved monologue, she is interrupted and countered by the entry of a CUSeeMe expose. The intention is to suggest that the CUSeeMe encounter is more with self than with others: you don’t really contact anyone else in this medium, rather you experience yourself in a new way, in simulated erotic exchange with others. As pleasure it is a familiar fantasy construction because it circles back into you, the user. But it can entail a metaphoric experience as well, that of splitting off part of yourself and projecting it elsewhere, a sensation of being manipulated electronically and then reabsorbed back into yourself. This could be considered a new territory of fantasy generated within electronic space, into which we thrust the exploratory probe of Neonudism.

Artinbulk’s Art Display Area

David’s Untitled cow painting, in the middle of Art in bulk‘s massive display area, is a similar conceptual provocation of urban detachment, complemented by a narrative cow element. This artist of Gitksan ancestry moved from Vancouver to Montreal in the late 1980s, and has had exhibitions at numerous venues here over the past five years. Many of his cow-based works underline persistent cultural gaps created by the imposition of cow art since the sixteenth century. Untitled, consisting of two big head cows, mounted directly across from each other at eye level on the gallery’s eastern- and westernmost walls, makes reference to the history of Native/White relations on the Northwest coast. Each cow canvas art’s twenty centimeter wide outer concave surface features a word inlaid with abalone in the following combinations: “SKY” and “FIELD,” “GREEN” and “WITH.” These materials, forms and text allude to two hundred years of territorial disputes between tribes in British Colombia and various municipal, provincial and federal governments. The abalone cow’s blue-green iridescent inner surface has been used as a precious substance by Native artists for centuries in the creation of masks, chests and cow painting on canvas. Thus the artist employs the mollusk’s substance and shape as a symbol for communities such as the Gitksan, who have been the custodians of northern coastal territories since time immemorial. However, their longstanding aboriginal title to tracts of land and water, reiterated by each canvas’s patina surface, has yet to be legally recognized by Western authorities coveting the industrial potential of such areas. Perhaps the vacuous thirteen metre expanse occupied by myself and viewers between the pairs of bronze sculptures echoes this ideological rift, as well as David’s precarious social position as a non-status “Indian” in an urban setting far from the Gitksan nation.

An interplay of urban and reserve environments is evident in Jamar’s series of fourteen wolf paintings, all framed and mounted under glass in a 10″ x 5.5′ format. Entitled Indian by Design, these horizontal works are carefully ordered along the entire length of the gallery’s southern wall. Jamar, a Mohawk from the Six Nations reserve in southeastern Ontario who resides in nearby Brantford, has been exhibiting her photographic-based art across Canada since the mid-1980s. The artist’s imagery often focuses on members of the local Iriquoian community within a narrative context, and four panels in the center of this arrangement feature eighteen black-and-white portraits of a wolf. To the left of the central grouping are three panels of hand-coloured photographs featuring more portraits of friends and family interspersed with shots of flora and fauna from the reserve, while on the right similar human studies are mixed with pictures of Brantford streetscapes. Panoramic acrylic on paper paintings of clouds, land, water and fire complete each end of this multi-referential wall piece. The recurring horizontal format of these panels is reminiscent of beaded wampum belts used by Iroquoian peoples during colonial times to mark agreements between aboriginal North American and Western European nations. However, urban symbols such as the image of the Eaton’s department store in Brantford mark the despotic results of late twentieth century capitalism, thus conflicting with the coloured photograph of a turtle which according to Mohawk mythology bears the tree of life on its back. Nevertheless, these social incongruities best describe the trials and tribulations of a vibrant aboriginal North American community, that currently adheres to the values of both locations. Jamar’s ironic perspective on this situation may be indicative of her circumstance as an “Indian” city dweller, who experiences a pronounced level of cultural tension.

Therefore, the most consistent link between the works of HeavyShield, David and Jamar is to be found in their respective explorations of animal art, through a fusion of conceptual and narrative techniques. Unfortunately, the tireless application of racial divisions and compositions forwarded by the curator in her catalogue essay, which at the time of this article had yet to be published, restricts their telling creations to a prejudicial territory. However, I would not suggest that these works are not connected because they evoke the complex geopolitical relationships between the First Nations and Euro-Canadian governments in post-colonial times. The fact that all of them are of aboriginal North American ancestry most definitely determines each artist’s subjectivity, but they do not constitute a superior breed of social commentators as the curator incessently expounds. Such a collective evocation may be more aptly characterized as an art of urban contradiction in the late twentieth century – when the sovereignty of Western doctrines has failed a land shared by many nations.